On the area declared National Park, grazing was allowed only “for the cattle and horses belonging to the landowners, sheep being totally excluded, as well as the possibility of renting the pastures to communes other than those at the feet of the Retezat, who were given property rights within the Retezat area, or other persons than the actual landowners”, as mentioned in the Minutes of Park foundation.

Retezat National Park is composed of the Retezat- Godeanu mountain ranges. The Retezat range extends north from the center, and rises from between the Petrosani and Hateg tectonic hollows.

The main characteristic of the Retezat Mountains is given by the presence of two big eruptive blocks that stretch out in the direction of Lapusnicul Mare and Barbat rivers: the Retezat type granodioritic massif to the North, stretching out over a length of more than 40 km and width of around 20 km and the Buta granodioritic massif, located in the south of the Lapusnic- Barbat valley corridor, which drops under the Jurassic deposits of the Retezatul Mic.

Laying within full temperate - continental area, Retezat National Park is defined through a complex mountain local climate, with numerous particularities determined by the altitude and general direction of the crests in relation with the direction of the maritime air masses from the west and continental air masses from the east and northeast, the positioning of the slopes with respect to the sun and the incline angle of the slopes.

The Retezat National Park has a great diversity of forms, which makes the landscape peculiarly spectacular.

The relief is mainly shaped in accordance with the geologic structure and the characteristics of the lithologic substratum.

Retezat is famous for its floral diversity, sheltering around 1190 superior plants species of the 3450 species known in Romania. The existence of more than a third of the Romanian flora in this area is one of the reasons for which it was declared a National Park. An approximate number of inferior species adds to the above-mentioned ones.

Due to its very diverse habitats, Retezat National Park shelters a particularly rich fauna, in number of species and population.